Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. Dyslexia refers to a cluster of symptoms, which result in people having difficulties with specific language skills, particularly reading. Students with dyslexia usually experience difficulties with other language skills such as spelling, writing, and pronouncing words. Dyslexia affects individuals throughout their lives; however, its impact can change at different stages in a person’s life. It is referred to as a learning disability because dyslexia can make it very difficult for a student to succeed academically in the typical instructional environment, and in its more severe forms, will qualify a student for special education, special accommodations, or extra support services.
DISCLAIMER: No two dyslexic students have exactly the signs or symptoms or responds to remediation in exaclty the same way. People with dyslexia are on a spectrum and often have additional conditions that impact them. The following is generalized information and some students have a few of the signs while others have many. As a tutor, I do an informal assessment to identify what the child knows prior to beginning tutoring. A comprehensive evaluation is important to determine underlining factors.
From the National Center for Learning Disablities
What Are the Warning Signs of Dyslexia?
The following are common signs of dyslexia in people of different ages. If you or someone you know displays these signs, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have a learning disability. But if troubles continue over time, consider testing for dyslexia.
Dyslexia: Warning Signs By Age
Recognizing letters, matching letters to sounds and blending sounds into speech
Pronouncing words, for example saying “mawn lower” instead of “lawn mower”
Learning and correctly using new vocabulary words
Learning the alphabet, numbers, and days of the week or similar common word sequences
Mastering the rules of spelling
Remembering facts and numbers
Handwriting or with gripping a pencil
Learning and understanding new skills; instead, relying heavily on memorization
Reading and spelling, such as reversing letters (d, b) or moving letters around (left, felt)
Following a sequence of directions
Trouble with word problems in math
Teenagers and Adults
Reading at the expected level
Understanding non-literal language, such as idioms, jokes, or proverbs